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(This topic has been moved ahead of the queue by popular demand)

What is an essential oil? Let’s start with what an essential oil is. An essential oil is an extract taken from the leaves, roots, stems or blossoms of a plant that is distilled into a concentrated form and sold in health food stores and by homeopaths, chiropractors, aromatherapists, wellness advocates, and others. The word “essential” refers to the extract being highly condensed. They are meant to be inhaled through a diffuser or applied to the skin. Often they are mixed into blends, such as doTerra’s product InTune Focus, which is marketed for “difficulty paying attention and staying on task.”

The two largest companies selling essential oils are Young Living and doTerra, and together they have over a billion dollars a year in annual sales. It’s big business. The essential oils market has boomed in the last 20 years as “wellness” and “natural” living have trended simultaneously with self-care through online sources and reduced trust in “traditional” medicine and governmental institutions. Young Living introduces a new product each year, with last year’s blend of pepper, spruce, and frankincense called: Fulfill Your Destiny. According to the company, it “encompasses the complex and beautiful journey that leads to achieving your goals and highest potential.” There’s a fascinating article in The New Yorker (October 9, 2017) called “Something in the Air”  about the big business of essential oils if you’re interested.

Surveys suggest that more than 50% of families of children with ADHD try some form of alternative medicine. Part of the appeal to parents of essential oils is that the products are supposedly “natural,” “safe,” and have been used for centuries.

Essential oils recommended for ADHD include: vetevier (an Indian grass), lavender oil, cedarwood, coconut oil, Roman chamomile, mandarin, ylang-ylang, rhodiola, helichrysum, rosemary, valerian, peppermint, and frankincense. It’s a long list, and the matching of any individual oil to a specific symptom it’s supposed to treat varies quite a bit by source.

Do they help? It’s hard to say, as there is very little research into whether, or how much, they may help. Many of the theories on mechanisms of action involve vague statements that would be extremely difficult if not impossible to test such as “balances the nervous system” and “stabilizes the energy field.” In some cases this is deliberate as the companies marketing the products try to avoid claims that could get them into trouble with the FDA.

Evidence from randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of such oils in treating ADHD is sparse, to say the least. The few studies that do exist, whether yielding positive or negative results, tend to suffer from inadequate trial design (e.g. small sample size, short duration), incomplete reporting, and/or lack of an appropriate control group.(1) This doesn’t mean the oils don’t work – it just means we don’t have much scientific evidence either way.

Most of the “evidence” in support of essential oils for ADHD is anecdotal and comes from testimonials. “Testimonials” are personal accounts of someone’s experience. They are generally subjective: “My child was less hyperactive,” “He was calmer,” and so on. Testimonials are inherently selective. People are more likely to talk about an “amazing cure” than about something that didn’t work. Companies selling products are certainly more likely to quote positive testimonials. And for many people stories are more powerful and convincing than statistics published in hard-to-read and hard-to-find scientific journals.

Are the stories true? In all honesty, I don’t know. Maybe your child’s symptoms really were improved by inhaling vetevier. Or maybe you or your child thought they were.

The placebo effect is a phenomenon in both traditional and alternative medicine. A person’s expectations when they ingest a medicine can have an influence on its real effectiveness. A study published in the Journal of Essential Oil Therapy in 2007 with Spanish sage oil separated participants for a memory task into a group told that the oil would impair their memory and a group told it would have a positive influence. The positive expectancy group did better and the negative expectancy group did worse than a control group who ingested the oil but were told nothing of its potential impact. We want things to work, so sometimes they do. As long as they work, though, that’s great – right? I’d say yes – if they’re not harmful in any way.

Are they safe? Maybe. Maybe not. Similar to prescription drugs, essential oils and blends contain biologically active compounds that can elicit pharmokinetic and pharmodynamic responses. There’s real medicine in there! Once consumed such substances are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body, often inhibiting or inducing metabolic enzymes or transporters. While composed of natural substances like leaves or roots, “natural” does not equate to “safe.” Approximately 50% of the drugs used in mainstream medicine were originally developed from “natural” substances. Remember the discovery of penicillin from mold?

Because essential oils are not regulated for quality control, the chemistry, potency, purity, and safety of any given oil is largely unknown and can vary from one product to the next. Differences in plant chemistry caused by weather or pesticides, as well as harvesting, storage, manufacturing and formulation processes introduce variability. Variability can influence responses and health.

From the government’s perspective, if a product is intended for a therapeutic use, such as treating or preventing disease, it’s considered a drug. The fact that an essential oil comes from a plant doesn’t keep it from being regulated as a drug. Under the law, drugs must meet requirements such as FDA approval for safety and effectiveness before they go on the market. The FDA determines a product’s intended use based on factors such as claims made in the labeling, on websites, and in advertising, as well as what consumers expect it to do. So, when the marketing of an essential oil for ADHD steps over a line and makes drug-like claims, the FDA may step in. In 2014 they warned an online company selling valerian for ADHD that it was in violation of interstate commerce laws for selling products that “in light of their toxicity or other potentiality for harmful effect, the method of their use, or the collateral measures necessary to their use, are not safe for use except under the supervision of a practitioner licensed by law to administer them.”(2) The same year they scolded doTerra and Young Living for their claims about treating ADHD. So the companies changed their marketing literature to downplay promises made.

Why aren’t there more studies? Most plants and raw botanicals can’t be patented, so why should a company spend money proving they’re effective? Any negative results could harm future sales. The big companies involved in this booming market are making a lot of money as things stand. Why rock the boat?

What about scientists doing research in the academic realm? Research with essential oils is hard to do because patients can’t be blinded to the odors. But probably the main reason there hasn’t been more scientific research is that obtaining funding for research from governmental agencies for “alternative medicines” is a challenge. I wish this were different.

What should a parent do? Proceed cautiously. There’s very little scientific support for positive effects of essential oils in the treatment of ADHD. Evidence of the safety of essential oils with children is also scarce. Essential oils contain potentially powerful substances that may help, but they may hurt. We just don’t have enough information to know.

(1) Complementary and Alternative Medicine use in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Reviewing the Safety and efficacy of Herbal Medicines by Hajrah Mazhar, Emrson Harkin, Brian Foster, Cory Harris in Curr Dev Disorders Rep (2016) 3:15-24.

(2) https://www.fda.gov/ICECI/EnforcementActions/WarningLetters/2014/ucm418714.htm.

 

I’ve decided this series on alternative therapies will first tackle the mistakes I made myself as a parent. The last blog (Part 1) was on vision therapy as a cure for dyslexia. Today, in Part 2, I’ll address Dr. Daniel Amen’s Brain Clinics and how they purport to diagnose and cure ADHD.

Dr. Amen is larger than life. A media star, best-selling author of 30 books (5 New York Times bestsellers), producer of a t.v. show aired on PBS (or rather, infomercial) about his theories, paid motivational speaker, and master salesman promoting proprietary nutritional supplements.

He has 8 clinics in California, New York, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Atlanta, and Washington State. They claim to treat pretty much anything, from ADHD, addiction, anxiety and depression, autism, bipolar disorder, concussions, Lyme disease, marital conflict, dementia, and sleep disorders to weight loss. That claim alone should be enough to make anyone skeptical. Claiming to be an expert at everything is usually overreaching.

But let me zero in on how they “treat” ADHD.

I read Dr. Amen’s book: Healing ADD: The Breakthrough Program That Allows You to See and Heal the 6 Types of ADD when it came out in 2002. It sounded convincingly scientific. Neuroimaging was on the uptick and being heralded as a huge scientific breakthrough. Amen claimed he could cure ADHD by looking inside the brain with a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan using gamma rays and with injected radioactive dye and tailoring treatment to 7 different types of ADD: Classic, Inattentive, Overfocused, Temporal Lobe, Limbic, Ring of Fire, and Anxious.

As my 2e son wasn’t responding to anything else we tried, the idea that he might have a specific subtype of ADHD that required a targeted treatment was appealing. So we paid a substantial fee and drove to an appointment at Dr. Amen’s first clinic in Northern California – somewhere in the Central Valley between San Francisco and Sacramento. We went through the intake process and were scheduled for SPECT scans. But something didn’t feel quite right, and I didn’t follow through. My response was instinctual at the time. But since then I’ve earned a PhD and reviewed the literature and scientific consensus from a more informed perspective.

First, there is no research evidence (other than what comes out of Amen’s presumably biased clinics) to support the idea that there are  seven different subtypes of ADHD. Real science – the kind backed by double blind studies, NIH supported grants, and published in reputable peer reviewed journals – has identified two types (Primarily Inattentive and Primarily Hyperactive/Impulsive). We’re kind of working on a possible third type tentatively called Sluggish Cognitive Tempo. There certainly is no such thing as “limbic” or “ring of fire” ADHD.

Second, to do a SPECT scan, the child must be injected with an IV carrying radioactive material directly into his or her bloodstream. Its radiation-emitting particles are carried to every part of their growing body. There is an increase in the possibility of cancer being caused as a result of this kind of radiation exposure, particularly for children, as their growth means more cells are dividing, providing a greater risk of radiation disrupting cell development. This is why they ask you if you’re pregnant before giving you a mammogram. The risk may be small, but it’s there.

Third, the idea that you can diagnose ADHD by looking at SPECT images of blood flow in the brain is a huge leap of faith. The key question in evaluating a diagnostic test is whether or not its findings are useful in determining what treatment the patient should have. SPECT scans are not FDA-approved for diagnostics, partly because they only have a 54 percent  sensitivity, meaning they are only accurate half the time. Scientists have yet to identify reliable diagnostic markers using far more advanced technologies such as fMRIs, which provides better temporal and spatial resolution. There is no scientific evidence to suggest that SPECT scans are a useful diagnostic tool for ADHD and can inform treatment plans. The American Psychological Association has twice issued papers that dispute “claims being made that brain imaging technology … is useful for making a clinical diagnosis and for helping in treatment selections.” The most recent paper was the work of 12 scientists who spent three years assessing the latest research. The summary: “There are currently no brain imaging biomarkers that are currently clinically useful for any diagnostic category in psychiatry.”

None of the nation’s most prestigious medical organizations  — including the American Psychological Association, the National Institute of Mental Health, the American College of Radiology, the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, and the National Alliance on Mental Illness — validate his claims. Literally no major research institution takes his SPECT work seriously.

Here in New York, the extremely well-respected APA president and chairman of Psychiatry at Columbia University, Dr. Jeffrey Lieberman, says: “In my opinion, what he’s doing is the modern equivalent of phrenology…The claims he makes are not supported by reliable science, and one has to be skeptical about his motivation.” Former director of the National Institute of Mental Health, President of the Society for Neuroscience (the leading professional organization for neuroscientists), and director of the Center for Psychiatric Research at MIT and Harvard, Dr. Steven E. Hyman, says: “I can’t imagine clinical decisions being guided by an imaging test.” Dr. Thomas Insel, director of the National Institute for Mental Health, says “entrepreneurial zeal capitalizing on scientific advances needs to be tempered by reality checks.”

Dr. Amen thinks he’s a “maverick” onto something that no one else in the field understands. I guess I might respect that (I do like mavericks) if he weren’t a self-promoter making a ton of money by preying on the fears and hopes of desperate families using invasive, potentially dangerous, and ineffective technology. Don’t be fooled by his brand of pseudoscience.

I was asked to write an article for the December, 2017 issue of the 2e Twice Exceptional Newsletter, a bi-monthly subscription ($35/year) online newsletter for “those who raise, educate, and counsel high-ability (gifted) children who also have learning challenges.” It’s a wonderful publication and one I recommend for everyone who lives and breathes 2e. As the focus of the December issue was on relationships, they asked me to write about the importance of the student/teacher relationship, and what might be done to try to facilitate the development of positive ones. My article, in full, can be found here: 2E Newsletter Student Teacher Relationship Article.

But let me summarize a few key points as we head into a new semester.

Positive student-teacher relationships are important to virtually all students. But they are especially important for students who are “at risk.” And twice exceptional learners are at risk for underachievement, boredom, bullying, anxiety, depression, social disconnectedness, being misunderstood, and are prone to daily frustration. A good school year can be “made” by a relationship with a teacher who appears to like and bond with the student. A bad year can be “made” by a teacher who doesn’t. Strong student-teacher relationships can increase student motivation, grades, social outcomes, and emotional well-being at every stage in the student’s development, from early elementary school through college and graduate school. Clearly, they’re important.

Here are some things parents and students can each do to try to facilitate them.

Steps Parents can Take:

• Teach your child to be his or her own advocate. For obvious reasons (power differential, age difference) parents often need to take on the role of advocate for their child in school. However to the extent that the student can advocate for his or herself, it can be particularly effective. Teachers tend to be more open to requests and concerns expressed by students (and can be somewhat wary or skeptical of what they perceive as “helicopter” parenting).

• Teach your child social skills helpful in developing sound relationships with all people, including teachers (e.g., listening, turn-taking, conversational give-and-take, respect, complimenting others).

• Ask for a meeting to provide a “heads up” about your child. Explain their strengths and weaknesses, susceptibilities and personality. Ask for help addressing both exceptionalities – your child’s strengths and areas of weakness.

• Check in on a regular (but not excessive) basis to see how things are going and ask what you can do on your end to  help. Perhaps you can reinforce desired behaviors at home (e.g., waiting before blurting out an answer).

• Be a squeaky wheel – but a polite one. The squeaky wheel often does “get the grease.” Don’t hesitate to be direct about asking the teacher to meet your child’s needs. Stay on top of what’s going on in the classroom. But try to be polite and collaborative. A teacher may make more of an effort for a family they like.

• If things go wrong – your child comes home in tears or the teacher sends home behavioral warnings on a daily basis – it’s time to take action. Ask for a meeting with the teacher first. Go with an open mind. Listen, take notes. Patiently explain what you think may be happening from your child’s perspective. Try not to be too defensive. Suggest strategies that may be effective. If things don’t improve, then enlist the help of the principal, school psychologist, or an outside consultant.

Steps Students can Take:

• The more mature student can work deliberately on personal and advocacy skills conducive to developing good student-teacher relations, but even young children can learn helpful strategies.

• Make efforts to establish a personal relationship with your teacher. Ask if you can meet one-on-one so you can get to know each another. Talk about your needs. Stay after class to chat for a few minutes. Go to office hours. Share your interests and successes outside of school with your teacher. The better your teacher knows you and understands the person you are and the person you want to be, the more likely and better able he or she will be to help you toward your goals.

• Show appreciation by thanking your teacher for a lesson you enjoyed, for their feedback on a paper you wrote, or for the way they made a topic come alive for you. Positive feedback makes people feel warmly toward the person giving it.

• Show respect. Be polite. Try to listen and not talk to peers when the teacher is talking. Say “please” and “thank you.” If you feel that instruction is pointless or boring, explain this privately to the teacher rather than as an aside to your classmates.

• Ask for and accept help. Let your teacher know when you don’t understand something. Or when you already know the material and need something different or more advanced.

• Try to be patient, but also (politely) persistent in asking for the additional help, clarification or any accommodation you may need.

A good relationship with even one caring teacher can literally change a student’s life. We shouldn’t rely on chance and hope that such a relationship will develop spontaneously, but rather can try to set the stage and take proactive steps to try to help it happen.

Ever since my mind-blowing trip to the Galapagos last January I’ve been thinking about evolution, the environment, and organism-environment interaction. Each island in the Galapagos has a slightly different environment, and the islands as a whole are very different from the Ecuadorean mainland. The animals who ended up flourishing on the islands adapted to their environment. Or they moved on.

I’m a psychologist, not an ecologist. The world I concern myself with is that of children and their development. But it occurs to me that we often don’t spend enough time thinking about that from an ecological perspective. An organism is an individual living animal, plant, or single-celled life form. A child is an “organism.” An environment is the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal or plant lives or operates. School is an “environment.” The child and their school are part of an ecosystem, and they have important impacts on one another.

When something is not working well in the child-school ecosystem we often focus on what’s “wrong” with the child and why they don’t “fit in.” We sometimes pathologize the child’s behavior and diagnose ADHD, a learning disability, autism, or a behavioral disorder. The diagnosis may fit, but I often wonder whether the same child would be diagnosed with the same disability if they were in an environment better suited to them as an individual. Would the twice exceptional student who blurts out answers and won’t do what the teacher tells him to do be diagnosed with ADHD in a school where he could control his own pace of learning? Perhaps a move to a different environment would allow that particular organism – that child – to flourish.

I know that we often feel stuck with the school our child attends. We may have moved to a public school district specifically for the highly ranked schools. We may have gone through an onerous private school admission process to get a spot for our child at what we thought would be the best possible school. But sometimes it just isn’t working out and attention should be paid to not just the child and what might be “wrong” with him or her, but also to the environment and what might be “wrong” with it – for that child. The school your child attends may be perfectly fine for some children and even optimal for others. But it may not be the best fit for your child.

Many of us may have had the experience (I know I have) of spending our political capital in the principal’s office requesting a specific teacher because we heard from other parents how wonderful he or she was, only to discover that the teacher we begged for wasn’t so great for our child. Or discovering that although our daughter thrived at XYZ school, our son doesn’t. I don’t think one can always generalize and describe a school as a “good school” or a “bad school,” or a teacher as a “good teacher” or a “bad teacher.” Good for who? Bad for who?

Our children – the gifted, twice-exceptional, learning disabled, differently wired – are unique. They are organisms that need specific kinds of nutrients and environments in which to thrive. If your child isn’t developing optimally, it might be time to consider a change of environment. Optimal development happens when the organism/environment interaction promotes growth.

I realize that changing schools may not be convenient and can involve risks. But it might be among the best things you ever do for your child. I know parents who have made the sacrifice of moving to another state so their child could attend a better-fit school. And heroes who take on homeschooling. These parents have made bold decisions to try to find or create the best environment for their child to thrive.

When my son was 11 he begged me to not send him back to the school he had been attending. This was after spending the summer at two Johns Hopkins CTY camps (let this be a warning: it can be dangerous to let your child experience the joy of an optimal learning environment). We took him seriously, lost our deposit at his old school, and had to scramble to find a new school for him to attend. We ended up finding a small, funky, ‘”unschool” for gifted kids where I’m not sure he learned much, but he was happy. We call this his “first gap year.” He went on to do well at a wonderful middle school, high school, and the college of his choice. To this day he credits the finding of his academic and social “sea legs” to the “gap year” he had in the 6th grade. And he thanks us for listening to him.

I feel badly he had to ask.

I thought it would be helpful to post a list of the books and other resources I most frequently refer my clients to.

Books:

8 Keys to Parenting Children with ADHD by Cindy Goldrich (2015). Excellent “instruction manual” for how to parent children with ADHD including behavior management strategies. Author available for consultations.

Bright Kids Who Can’t Keep Up by Ellen Braaten and Brian Willoughby (2014). How slow processing speed impacts students and what can (and can’t) be done to help.

Executive Skills in Children and Adolescents by Peg Dawson and Richard Guare (2004). This is a manual – a “how-to” guide with specific interventions to be implemented at home and/or school for executive function weaknesses. I used this guide to help my son get through high school.

Misdiagnosis and Dual Diagnoses of Gifted Children and Adults: ADHD, bipolar, OCD, Asperger’s, depression, and other disorders, by James T. Webb, et al. (2005). In my view a bit extreme in suggesting that many behaviors characteristic of disability are actually just signs of giftedness, though I agree that does sometimes occur. I find that more often giftedness and disability coexist and that giftedness alone is not always (or even often) associated with dysfunction.

Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz (2003). Primarily about how to properly remediate reading problems but also specifically addresses challenges faced by bright dyslexics (Shaywitz is at Yale so discusses and works with students there).

The ADHD Explosion by Stephen P. Hinshaw and Richard Scheffle (2014). Chapters on the causes of ADHD (where biology meets culture) and diagnosing and treating ADHD are well worth the cost of the book. Much of the rest delves into social and educational policy issues. Anything by Stephen Hinshaw (one of my mentors at Berkeley) is recommended.

The Dyslexia Empowerment Plan by Ben Foss (2013). Focuses on strengths associated with dyslexia, explains assistive technology, and argues in favor of “reading” by listening rather than scanning text with one’s eyes. My son has taught himself to listen at 3x normal speed and says it is a “game changer” for him.

The Dyslexic Advantage by Brock and Fernette Eide (2011). Focuses on identifying the 4 main strengths associated with dyslexia. Powerful reading for adult dyslexics as well as parents. I give a copy to any parent of a dyslexic child who thinks they, too, might  be dyslexic. The book launched a foundation and website listed below.

The Mislabeled Child: How understanding your child’s unique learning style can open the door to success by Brock and Fernette Eide (2006). Covers misdiagnosis  and has chapters on different issues including communication challenges, ADHD, dysgraphia, dyslexia, and giftedness.

Websites, Facebook, and Other Resources:

2e Twice-Exceptional Newsletter. 2e Newsletter. An online bimonthly publication dedicated to understanding twice exceptional children. Modest fee for  online subscription. I think it’s well worth it.

Davidson Institute. Davidson Young Scholars. Non-profit providing free counseling to families of exceptionally gifted students accepted as Davidson Young Scholars. Many of my clients find the counseling to be very helpful.

Devon MacEachron, PhD. www.drdevon.com. That’s me! 2e assessment and educational advising. Facebook:  https://www.facebook.com/2Egifted/. Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/2egifted.

Dyslexic Advantage. Dyslexic Advantage Foundation. Focused on uncovering and celebrating the strengths associated with dyslexia. Testimonials, famous people, advice, assistive technology, etc. Premium membership gives access to a wonderful magazine and other resources.

Gifted Homeschoolers Forum. GHF. Primarily for families who are homeschooling, but much of the material and resources are of interest to all.  Publish articles, books, active online community, blog, ask the expert “column,” and have a section of their website devoted to twice-exceptionality.

Hoagies Gifted Website. Hoagies . Huge resource on giftedness and 2e with a plethora of articles, chat groups, blogs, etc.  Hoagies Gifted Discussion Group is a related Facebook group with 4,835 members you must apply to participate in.

Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth. CTY. Students testing as highly gifted in math or verbal qualify for their summer camps, online courses, family vacations, and day programs. The programs are not inexpensive, but they are phenomenal and can change a child’s life.

National Association for Gifted Children. NAGC. National advocacy group, posts articles, position papers, annual conference, offers Parenting for High Potential magazine, program and camp lists.

Parents of Twice Exceptional Children (2E): Closed Facebook group with 7,762 members you must apply to join. Active discussion with responses from parents in similar situations.

Raising Poppies: Closed Facebook group with 13,279 members you must apply to join focused on issues raising gifted children.

Twice Exceptional Children’s Advocacy (TECA): www.teca2e.org. Modest membership fee to access moderated online parent support groups, message board, and other specifically 2e resources.

TilT Parenting: www.tiltparenting.com. Features a weekly podcast focused on parenting 2e learners, referred to positively as “differently wired” kids, in the TilT manifesto.

The frequency of misdiagnosis, especially of gifted and twice exceptional students, is one of the reasons I decided to go into the field of assessment as a specialist in these populations. Too many families go to the trouble and expense of having an assessment conducted only to be given incorrect or incomplete information about their child. I have been through this myself as a parent. And I have seen it time and time again among the families I work with. Misdiagnosis can create lasting damage, derail children’s educations, and result in worried days and sleepless nights for children and parents.

Why does this happen? Here are the top ten reasons  gifted and twice exceptional children are misdiagnosed:

1. Hidden abilities and weaknesses: Most gifted and twice-exceptional learners have complex profiles with unique patterns of strengths and weakness. Their strengths often camouflage the expression of their weaknesses (resulting in failure to identify learning difficulties or disabilities) and their weaknesses often camouflage the expression of their strengths (resulting in failure to identify strengths and giftedness). What on the surface may appear to be an average student is often a student with exceptional abilities and exceptional weaknesses “averaging” one another out.

2. “Symptom” confusion: The markers of conditions may appear to overlap. Gifted learners and learners with ADHD both have low tolerance for boredom. Gifted learners and learners with Asperger’s both have a tendency to focus intensely in areas of personal interest. Students with dyslexia may appear to have ADHD if they act distracted or disruptive when its time to read aloud or write.

3. Interaction of the organism (the child) with its environment: Remember gene-environment interaction from high school biology? The influence of the environment on development cannot be overstated. A child who appears to have ADHD in a school where he or she is having to sit through boring classes in which they already know most of the material may not appear to have ADHD at all when placed in a challenging gifted program. And sometimes it is the interaction with a specific teacher that causes the problem. Have you heard the expression “I don’t have a learning disability – my teacher has a teaching disability?”

4. Lack of training in giftedness and twice exceptionality: The psychologist conducting the assessment may not have received much training, if any, in these areas. You may be surprised to learn how little time is spent in most psychology training programs on the assessment of intelligence and learning. Most programs include no training in giftedness or twice exceptionality whatsoever. Furthermore, because many psychologists who conduct assessments work with a broad variety of children and do psychotherapy or other kinds of work in addition to assessment, their knowledge of giftedness and twice exceptionality may not grow much with experience. Some may see only one or two gifted or twice-exceptional students a year. Teachers tend to be equally unfamiliar with the characteristics of these children.

5. “Gifted” is seen as a four letter word: Some kind-hearted people think that it is elitist or unfair to describe or think of a child as gifted because it implies that they are “better than” or “superior” to others. This may be driven by a desire to be inclusive, treat everyone equally, and make people feel good. Strangely, not every child is expected to be equally gifted at sports where it is “allowed” to describe a child as athletically gifted. But it isn’t very “politically correct” to focus attention on intellectual giftedness and really hasn’t been since the 1950’s.

6. Misinterpretation of diagnostic criteria: The criteria psychologists use to make diagnoses are generally taken from the APA’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). One area of misunderstanding is that psychologists and school staff may be under the impression that a student has to be performing below the average level (e.g. below the 25th percentile) for their age or grade to be diagnosed with a learning disability. This is actually not true. Under “Diagnostic Features” the DSM-5 states: “academic skills are distributed along a continuum, so there is no natural cut point that can be used to differentiate individuals with and without specific learning disorder,” and “specific learning disorder may also occur in individuals identified as intellectually gifted. These individuals may be able to sustain apparently adequate academic functioning by using compensatory strategies…” Thus the code acknowledges that a gifted student may perform at the average, or “apparently adequate” level, yet still have a learning disability. But many school staff and even psychologists haven’t read the fine print.

7. Incomplete, cursory assessment: To do a top-notch assessment requires gathering a lot of background data and test data while applying critical thinking skills, testing hypotheses, and being willing to keep looking until the answers are revealed. While some diagnoses are clear-cut and relatively easy to make, most gifted and twice exceptional learners are harder to figure out. Not every psychologist is eager to dedicate that much energy and time. Time is money. Sometimes parents are the ones hoping for a quick fix to what may actually be a rather complicated problem.

8. Emotions get in the way: Parents may want their child to be diagnosed with a learning disability because it seems more hopeful than being told their child has a general intellectual disability. Or because it explains why they are under-performing despite high ability when the real problem is social, emotional, or family problems. Conversely, they may not want their child to be diagnosed with a disability because they feel it would be stigmatizing. Sometimes the emotions or preconceptions of the psychologist influence them to downplay findings to protect parents and child from disappointment. I’ve seen reports that pussyfoot so timidly around a diagnosis that parents are left mistakenly thinking there was nothing they really need be concerned about. This seems to be particularly common with autism/Asperger’s diagnoses. And ADHD. And emotional and behavioral problems.

9. Not observing and listening to the student: It never ceases to amaze me how much even very young children know about themselves. Of course they may not come right out and say it, but if they are observed carefully and asked the right questions in a welcoming and nurturing environment, amazing insights come out. Perceptive, sensitive gifted learners have finely tuned antennae making them profoundly aware of exactly where they are not doing as well as their peers or as they’d like. All one has to do is observe and ask.

10. Not observing and listening to the parent: Even though few parents have been professionally trained in picking up these kinds of clues, I find that they often are the first to notice something is up – and the most persistent to find solutions. If they raised the issue with their pediatrician they may have been told it was probably developmental and not to worry. If they raised the issue with their child’s teacher they may have been told their child was at grade level and not to worry. But parents are really good at worrying. When they “know” or “feel” something is up, they should trust their instincts. They’re often right.

If I can help you understand your gifted or twice-exceptional student better, schedule a time to talk with me by e-mailing dm@drdevon.com.

Here’s the “prescription” I give the families I work with for the perfect summer: “Take two genuine interests, explore them thoroughly, and call me in September.”

When parents actively help their child explore their interests and delve deeply into their passions, everyone in the family ends up having a rewarding summer. Whether the passion is marine biology or engineering, art or writing, programs can be found or designed to address every child’s interests. For the parent whose child happens to be interested in something offered at a nearby summer camp, this can be easy to arrange. For the parent who lives far from such resources or for whom high program fees are prohibitive, or whose child has unusual interests, planning a summer of enrichment can be a bit more challenging. It is my view, though, that parents can give no greater gift than helping their child design and implement a summer of exploring their genuine interests, utilizing talents, accomplishing something of value, and building self-esteem.

Benefits of Engagement

The benefits for children of a summer engaged in enrichment in their interests are manifold: intellectual stimulation, increased motivation to achieve, enhanced marketability to colleges, the chance of finding passions or a future career, validation of self, increased self-esteem, increased happiness, and social connectedness.

Intellectually, students who work on something they are interested in at their pace of learning are stimulated at a level rarely possible during the school year. The opportunity to study something of intrinsic interest and challenge is the most thrilling intellectual experience possible. Kindling an intrinsic motivation can even lead to a transfer of motivation and stronger desire to achieve throughout the school year. Students can build a résumé showing the pursuit of interests and achievement, positioning the student well for college applications. Selective colleges are far more interested in applicants who have pursued their genuine interests over the years than in those who engage only in what is required and valued at school. Children may find their true calling in life by exploring their interests.

But perhaps the greatest benefit of an enrichment-focused summer is in the emotional area. By valuing our child’s interests, we show that we truly care about them for who they are, not who we think they should be. By taking their interests seriously, we validate their unique sense of self. Knowing that they have their parents’ support can give students a sense of security and help them become the person they really want to be. Furthermore, children who spend their summers pursuing personally meaningful goals are happier than children who just “hang out.” Children who pursue their interests during the summer often come into frequent contact with peers or mentors in their interest area. Relationships with others who share their interests can be deeply fulfilling in a way that interactions with school-year classmates and video-game buddies are not.

Tips for Parents

Summer is upon us. How can parents design an enrichment-focused summer for their child?

Begin with an assessment of your child’s genuine interests. In a non-judgmental way, directly ask what they want to learn more about, from anthropology to zoology, archery to yoga, animation to  film making. Making a broad list of different kinds of hobbies and fields of interest and discussing them with your child can be helpful. Reflect on how your child chooses to spend his or her free time, the books that absorb their interest, the kinds of exhibits that engage them in museums, and any other clues to what intrigues them. Even interests that on the surface don’t appear to lend themselves to productive enrichment can be turned in interesting directions. For example, if your daughter spends most of her free time on the phone with friends in conversations about their social relationships, recognize that this could be a clue that she may be good at and interested in helping people solve problems. Consider exposing her to psychology.

Once parents have a better understanding of their child’s interests, what next?

Embrace them. Don’t try to influence your child into pursuing something you consider to be more impressive, or something that you wish you could have done, but didn’t. Remember, it’s your child’s life, not yours.

Search for opportunities for your child to delve deeply into exploring their interests. Discourage your child from following friends to a camp that may interest the friends, but might not be a good fit for your child.

Don’t limit yourself to organized programs (although there are many terrific ones). Sometimes the best opportunities are the ones that the two of you initiate together.

Don’t be shy about asking experts for their advice. Most experts who have a consuming interest in something are flattered when they’re approached by a parent with a child who’s intrigued by it. I know of children who interned with a scientist and co-published articles in journals by the time they were out of middle school. Professional musicians can often recommend teachers, competitions, and music schools. Doctors, lawyers, and other professionals might allow your child to “job shadow” for a day.

Plan family vacations and day outings around your child’s interests. Paleontology fits with a trip to the Southwest to volunteer on a dinosaur dig. Engineering fits with outings to science museums and factory tours. Law fits with visits to courtrooms or state or federal legislatures.

Find books and do internet searches to learn more about your child’s interests. Discover topic-specific magazines, websites, podcasts, and YouTubes. Find out about lectures, conferences, webinars, and other special events.

Learn about local special interest clubs and organizations. Most communities have star watching groups, book groups, birding clubs, speech-making clubs, and other groups that offer events and information.

Be involved. Don’t just sign your child up. Accompany him or her to events. Help him practice his musical instrument. Read the books he or she is reading and discuss them over dinner. Studies repeatedly show that parental involvement is essential if children are to fully develop their potential.

If you follow this “prescription” for the perfect summer, your child will begin the school year with renewed energy, enthusiasm for learning, and one step closer to achieving the joy of true fulfillment. And you’ll have quite an interesting ride along the way!

Note: This article is an update of one I published in 2012 on the SENG  (Social and Emotional Needs of the Gifted) website: www.seng.org.

Brings tears to my eyes every time I read it.

As adults we respect and admire the accomplishments of renegades and creative minds like Leonardo da Vinci, Albert Einstein, Nikolai Tesla, Elon Musk, Steve Jobs, Richard Branson, Walt Disney, Vincent van Gogh, John Lennon, Steven Spielberg, and Robin Williams. They’re the inventors, imaginers, healers, explorers, creators, and inspirers who change the world. Without minds like theirs society would not move forward. We need them more than ever today.

But these very same individuals, as children, were the kinds of student teachers found most difficult, parents worried about and lost sleep over, and whose peers scorned or bullied them. Why? For the very same qualities that made them so successful as adults. Being different, rebelling against the status quo, refusing (or being constitutionally unable) to fit in, breaking or questioning the rules.

Most parents want their children to be happy, make friends, and do well in school and extracurricular activities like sports and music. Down the road they want them to get into a good college and launch a career that supports them and provides job satisfaction. Get married, have a family. Maybe they will even make a meaningful contribution to society.

But what many parents don’t realize or lose sight of in the trenches of elementary, middle, and high school is that for some children – especially twice-exceptional and gifted children – being “successful” in traditional ways as a child is not necessarily a good predictor of being successful as an adult.

I was guilty of this kind of myopic thinking as a parent myself, before an encounter made me rethink my values. My children were happy and had friends before formal schooling began, but once they started Kindergarten things began to go downhill. Teachers sent home notices about their behavior (inattentive, questioned authority, lacking focus, failed to complete assignments, etc.). Grades were spotty. Playdate invitations were less frequent than they would have liked. Uninterested in and not very good at organized sports, they were basically off the grid in terms of the kinds of extracurricular interests their peers were engaging in. The things they did like to do – building and taking things apart for my son and imagination and telling stories for my daughter – weren’t easily shared with peers and certainly didn’t give them any attention in the community. They were diagnosed with giftedness, learning disabilities, and ADHD, and I spent countless nights lying awake in bed worrying about their futures.

My “awakening” happened after an elementary school band concert when my then 4th grade daughter was called to the stage to play a clarinet solo she’d practiced for weeks in front of about 200 people. She stood there for a full minute rifling through her music and then said: “I’m afraid I forgot my sheet music for the piece I was supposed to play. So I think it’s appropriate under the circumstances to play “If I Only Had a Brain” by Harold Arlen and E.Y. Harburg.” I’m embarrassed to say now that I was mortified. I had hoped she’d play her piece brilliantly, reflecting glory on me as her proud parent. After the concert a man in front of me turned around and complimented her performance. I said, “Thank you – you’re too kind. It would have been nice if she had done the piece she practiced.” He responded: “You should be proud to have a daughter who can think on her feet, improvise, and deal creatively and with humor with the cards she’s been dealt. That’s much more important in the long run.” His words brought me up short.

I thought about it a lot. I realized I had wanted my child to excel in ways others in our community would judge to be impressive. How shallow of me! I had also been trying to shape her into some image in my mind of the “perfect” child. Top student, accomplished musician, popular, athletic. My own (questionable) values had gotten in the way of my appreciating my daughter for who she was and seeing the unique strengths she did possess. Inventive. Confident. Creative. Funny. Smart.

This was about the same time I went back to school for a PhD, so I was able to study motivation and achievement from a developmental perspective. I learned that the many of the attributes it takes to be a “successful” young student (compliance, diligence, eagerness to please, ability to memorize) are quite different from those required to be a successful older student and adult (challenging the status quo, intrinsic motivation, pursuit of one’s own interests, open-mindedness, a questioning mind). I also learned that individuals who pursue their genuine interests – and don’t let themselves be influenced by what everyone else is doing – are more successful as adults. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s thoughts on the joy of experiencing “flow” and how flow is also associated with achievement were particularly inspiring. I learned that popularity through high school is negatively correlated with achievement in most fields for girls. And, as students move through school the demands shift from more lower-level tasks like memorization of math facts and tidy handwriting to higher-level tasks like reading complex text and understanding it. Thomas West’s ground-breaking book In the Mind’s Eye (1997) about creativity in visual thinkers was the first to get me thinking about the possibility that even having a “disability” could confer certain advantages. Now I’m a firm believer that being wired differently can enable certain “superpowers” that most people can’t tap into in the same way.

Children who are “different” have enormous potential. As parents, we should try to keep the long-view in sight. Applaud and develop our children’s individuality. Encourage their pursuit of unusual interests and passions. Let them know we value them the way they are, and don’t want them to try to be like everyone else. It may take courage, but the results are worth it. Our misfits, rebels, trouble-makers, and square pegs in round holes may be the ones who change the world.

If your child has ADD or ADHD, or you think they might, do you worry that it will affect their life and future in only negative ways? Distractibility, disorganization, hyperactivity, interrupting the teacher, not completing assignments, poor time management, underachievement – the list goes on.

I agree there are significant challenges associated with having ADHD, and certainly being the parent of a child with ADHD is not easy!

But today let’s look at the flip side of the coin – the positive aspects. I’ll use the term ADHD because our diagnostic manual (the DSM-5) groups all of these attention disorders under Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), allowing us to specify predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive, or combined presentation subtypes.

Recently, research has been focused on uncovering the strengths associated with being wired differently. Dyslexics have trouble with sounds and language (housed in the brain’s left hemisphere), but they are often great at visual spatial thinking (housed in the right hemisphere). This may explain why we have so many successful dyslexic architects, engineers, and artists. Individuals with Asperger’s may have difficulty thinking at the “big picture” level (this requires a broad network of neural connections), but are better than most people at narrowing in on a specific topic. This may be why the Israeli army recruits people with Asperger’s into an elite intelligence unit dedicated to interpreting aerial and satellite photographs. They can see details that others can’t.

It makes sense, doesn’t it, that if your brain is weak in one area that another might pick up the slack? In her book The Autistic Brain,  Temple Grandin explains that some areas of her brain are smaller than normal, and others are larger. Dr. Grandin is brilliant at visualizing how things work, and she feels this is because the volume of axons (the pathway) projecting from the area of visual object information to her frontal and motor cortex is 10x larger than most people’s. Being different need not always be a bad thing.

Let’s look at the strengths associated with ADHD. The hunter/farmer hypothesis proposes that ADHD was an evolutionary advantage to nomadic hunter-gatherers who could both hyperfocus and were better able to sense and respond quickly to predators. It is only as agriculture developed and people became farmers that these behaviors – so useful hunting mammoths on the plains – became maladaptive in environments like the modern classroom. Maybe ADHD was an advantageous variation in human evolution. Could it still be?

In an article I wrote for CHADD a few years ago I touched on this topic: Looking for Silver Linings in the ADHD Playbook.

Here are the top ten benefits or “superpowers” associated with having ADHD in modern society:

  1. Creativity
  2. High energy, enthusiasm, curiosity, zest for life
  3. More sensitive/attuned to environment, 360-degree awareness
  4. Interpersonal intuition/emotional sensitivity (e.g. strong radar for other’s feelings)
  5. Entrepreneurial drive and talent, willingness to take risks
  6. Innovative, willing to explore, invent, think differently, fresh perspective, divergent thinking
  7. Holistic thinking coupled with ability to make quick thought connections
  8. Ability to multi-task
  9. Sense of humor
  10. Spontaneity

Doesn’t sound so bad, does it?

My favorite strength, and the one with the most evidence to support it, is creativity. Why would ADHD support enhanced creativity? Because weak ability to inhibit distraction and lapses in attention facilitate divergent thinking and the generation of random thoughts and ideas. Also a wider attentional span allows more elements and ideas to be combined, generating novel and original ideas. And the willingness to take risks is one of the core underpinnings of creativity. Researchers at UConn recently published a study about Engineering Students with ADHD, finding they possess “unparalleled creativity and risk-taking potential.”  They can draw on the kind of non-traditional divergent thinking essential for making radical technological breakthroughs – just the kind of thinking that moves society forward.

Forbes magazine describes ADHD as “the entrepreneurs superpower”. Sir Richard Branson, Ikea founder Ingar Kamprad, and JetBlue founder David Neelman are exemplars. Success magazine reports that “some of the most successful entrepreneurs credit their attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder for their accomplishments.” Creative people in fields from acting to politics attribute their success to their ADHD (actors Justin Timberlake, Channing Tatum, and Ryan Gosling, swimmer Michael Phelps (the most decorated Olympian of all time), political strategist James Carville, and others).

I’m a big believer in nurturing the strengths and interests of every child, not just trying to “fix” their weaknesses and make them be like everyone else. A strengths-based approach is especially important for students diagnosed with a disability. Yes, we need to help the child with ADHD get through school by addressing the challenges associated with their profile. But to help them fulfill their potential and become happy and productive members of society, we need to place an equal or perhaps even greater emphasis on helping them discover and celebrate their unique abilities.

Look for the ADHD “superpowers” in your child, and help them become the successful adult they have the potential to be!

If you’d like to talk with me about how to reinforce and develop the strengths of your child with ADHD, please e-mail me to plan a time to chat. I can be reached at: dm@drdevon.com.