Dr. Devon MacEachron\'s Blog

    SUBSCRIBE

    Sign up and I'll let you know when I update the blog.
    * = required field

Mindfulness meditation has enjoyed a tremendous surge in popularity in the past decade. The practice has moved from a largely obscure Buddhist concept founded about 2,600 years ago to a mainstream psychotherapy and educational construct.

What is Mindfulness Meditation?

It’s a technique of meditation that focuses awareness on breathing and encourages positive attitudes to distracting thoughts and feelings that are not ignored, but are rather acknowledged and observed nonjudgmentally as they arise to create a detachment from them and to gain insight and awareness. It involves training attention and awareness in order to bring mental processes under greater voluntary control. It promotes metacognitive awareness. Mindfulness meditation is a western adaptation of Vipasna, or mindful breathing meditation, with influences from other methods.

Other forms of meditation include: transcendental meditation, in which one sits in lotus position and chants internally with the goal of “enlightenment;” Kundalini meditation in which one tries to channel an upstream of energy and experience an altered state of consciousness; Qi Gong meditation from ancient China which utilizes breathing, movement, and posture to circulate energy through the bodies “energy centers;” and Zazen Zen Buddhist meditation, a straight-backed, seated meditation in which one aims to forget all judgmental thoughts, ideas, and images.

One of the main influencers behind the popularity of mindfulness meditation in the west is John Kabat-Zinn. Dr. Kabat-Zinn has written a number of best-selling books including: Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain and Illness; Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life; and Everyday Blessings: The Inner Work of Mindful Parenting. He approaches mindfulness as a scientist (PhD in molecular biology, MIT) and has published scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals (e.g. Journal of the American Medical Association) on mindfulness in medicine. His Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, developed in 1979 at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, has been used in hospitals and health clinics to help patients improve the quality of their lives.

What has my personal experience been with it?

My 26-year old 2e son got me into it. He gave me Full Catastrophe Living for Christmas and we did an 8-week self-guided MBSR meditation course based on Kabat-Zinn’s teachings. We’d text each other when it was time to meditate then text again afterward and call to chat about the experience. I also took a 6-week online course from Mindful Schools for educators. I still feel like an amateur! In my experience this is not something one can read a book about or take one course and immediately implement successfully. I think that’s one reason it’s called a “practice.” You have to practice a lot to get it down and even then you may lose direction. My son, who has been practicing on a daily basis for several years now, feels it is very helpful for improving his attention and focus (he has ADHD) and for reducing anxiety and a tendency to ruminate on negative thoughts. He thinks one of the biggest challenges with implementing it as a “treatment” is that teaching and coaching methods are not standardized and one often doesn’t know if one is “doing it right.”

How could it help 2e learners?

Mindfulness meditation could help 2e learners who have ADHD, autism, anxiety, and/or depression. The following benefits are mentioned:

• Improved attentional control and focus. Boosts to working memory.
• Stress reduction.
• Less emotional reactivity and emotional dysregulation.
• Reduced rumination via disengagement from perseverative cognitive activities.

Is it effective?

A 2017 article was published by science reporter Brian Resnick on Vox.com called: Is mindfulness meditation good for kids? Here’s what the science actually says. Resnick read more than a dozen studies — including systematic meta-reviews, which accounted for thousands of other papers — analyzing the research on mindfulness in both children and adults (there was much more research available on adults). He writes: “The evidence for mindfulness in adults is limited but promising” – especially for anxiety, depression, and stress reduction. He found less evidence for children, in part because there were so few studies.

Dr. Erica Sibinga, a pediatrician  at Johns Hopkins, conducts well-controlled trials using mindfulness in Baltimore’s poorest public schools. She and her colleagues recently conducted a randomized clinical trial with 300 fifth- to eighth-graders. Half the students got mindfulness instruction for 12 weeks. The other half got 12 weeks of health education and were the study’s controls. The results were quite strong: depression, anxiety, self-hostility, coping, and post-traumatic symptoms moved from “concerning levels” to “normal levels.”

A 2014 review published in Frontiers in Psychology found, across 24 studies (11 which had not been published in peer-reviewed journals), that mindfulness improved measures of cognitive performance but had less impact on stress and coping.

A second 2014  meta-analysis published in Education Psychological Review looked at 15 studies of school meditation programs and found “school based meditation is beneficial in the majority of cases,” but “the majority of effects of meditation upon student outcomes are small.”

And a third meta review, published in the Journal of School Psychology in August 2017, compiled 72 mindfulness studies of youth both in and outside of classroom settings. They found “universally small, positive therapeutic effects” for attention, introspection, and emotion regulation.

Overall, the evidence suggests that mindfulness does appear to have a positive effect for children, especially on anxiety and cognitive measures. The studies suggest that it is most beneficial for children who are disadvantaged or at-risk, and may not be as effective for children who are closer to a “normal” baseline. I feel our 2e children are “at-risk” and stand to benefit.

How do you teach a child how to do it?

Some schools incorporate the teaching of mindfulness in the school day. Mindful Schools  and MindUP are great programs designed for implementation in schools. Parents might be able to find a local private instructor, parent/child, or child-centered course to enroll in. They might find a therapist to engage their child in mindfulness-based therapy. There are numerous apps designed for children including Headspace for Kids and Mindfulness for Children. Parents willing to develop their own knowledge and skills might “home school” their child in mindfulness. Practitioners suggest that however a parent chooses to teach their child mindfulness, parents who also practice it themselves tend to have the greatest impact on their children.

Recommendation: 

I often recommend mindfulness meditation to the families of 2e learners I work with, as I do think it can help. I am concerned, though, that instruction and methodology can be a bit vague and many families may not know how best to go about it. Also, it’s not a “quick fix” but more of a “lifestyle change” requiring a  significant commitment to see results. I feel that the most benefit is gained when some rigor is put into implementation (e.g. scheduled daily family practice, instruction and ongoing guidance by a trained professional). Practice makes perfect!

I’ve been thinking about writing about pseudoscience and alternative therapies in the 2e world for some time, but worried about offending the usually well-meaning people providing such services and the often desperate families who choose to believe in them. But I’ve decided that in the current climate of fake facts it’s important to take a stand on the side of science.

I understand why alternative therapies can be appealing. Most are non-invasive, do not involve medication, and can sound logical intuitively. One hears anecdotes about how they changed a child’s life. Someone you trust and who seems to care may be recommending it. I get it. And I’ve been there myself as a parent, prepared to try anything and everything that had even a remote possibility of helping my child. But I wasted a lot of valuable time, energy, and money doing so. I hope you won’t make the same mistake.

So I’ll be writing a blog every two weeks in a series called: Myth Busters: Alternative Therapies for 2e Learners.

I’ll start with Vision Therapy.

I have to say it up-front. I’m astonished by how many people still think vision therapy can cure dyslexia. It simply can’t.

Let’s approach this logically from the perspective of where the breakdowns are cognitively in dyslexia. Dyslexia involves weaknesses in one or all of three brain processes: phonological processing, rapid naming, and orthographic processing. There is a great deal of evidence that the main mechanism is usually phonological, namely a basic defect in segmenting and manipulating the phoneme constituents of speech. This has nothing to do with vision. There is evidence (my PhD thesis was in this area) that rapid naming speed can be involved, as the dyslexic brain often has difficulty performing tasks requiring processing of brief stimuli in rapid temporal (time) succession. Again, this has nothing to do with vision. It has to do with timing. Orthographic processing is the formation of visual long-term memory representations of letters, letter patterns, and sequences of letters that serve to map spatially the temporal sequence of phonemes within words. In effect, it’s memorizing what letters and strings of letters look like (for example “ing”), and being able to identify them quickly and efficiently in a word. This does have to do with vision. But it’s a higher-level function. Figuring out what a word says is an iterative, interactive process drawing simultaneously on phonological, rapid naming, orthographic, and additional processes (e.g. word meanings or semantics). It involves higher level cortical functions. It occurs in the brain after visual signals are transmitted from the eyes. We know this from functional MRI’s of children reading.

Vision therapy addresses lower level ocular function. Its directed at improving visual acuity, eye tracking, ocular alignment, convergence, and other issues. For example, a series of convergence exercises may be recommended to treat convergence insufficiency, a condition in which the eyes are inefficient at working together when looking at nearby objects. This condition causes one eye to turn outward instead of inward with the other eye creating double or blurred vision. It affects between 0.1 and 5% of the population and is most common at high school or college age, when there is an increased demand for near work, and early middle age, when the use of bifocals leads to decreased accommodative convergence. Symptoms include eye strain and blurry vision. A younger child can have convergence insufficiency, and might complain of eye strain or blurry vision. Blurry vision would certainly make reading hard. But ocular function problems like this should not be confused with dyslexia.

When I took my dyslexic son to a vision therapist I was told he required 6-12 months of twice-weekly therapy for eye tracking due to frequency of eye saccades. Saccades are eye movements between two or more fixation points, for example backtracking and jumping ahead while reading. I later learned that a tendency toward frequent saccades is a symptom of, not a cause of dyslexia. When a dyslexic reader is having trouble decoding words, their eyes tend to go back and forth trying to figure things out more often than a non-dyslexic reader. So what my son needed was to learn how to read, not how to control his eye movements.

It is possible for a child to have both dyslexia and a lower-level ocular defect. But children with dyslexia are no more likely than any other child to have an ocular motor deficit. To automatically assume that a dyslexic child has an ocular motor deficit is a fallacy. And to assume that vision therapy can treat dyslexia is a fallacy too. The child who has dyslexia needs dyslexia remediation. The child who has both dyslexia and an ocular motor defect may benefit from vision therapy as well as proper remediation of his or her dyslexia. In that case I’d recommend doing dyslexia remediation first, then checking to see if the ocular motor defect is still there. But please don’t rely on vision therapy alone.

The strength of expert opinion against vision therapy for dyslexia is remarkably strong. My ophthalmologist has a binder in his waiting room full of articles refuting claims that vision therapy helps with dyslexia, ADHD, and other behavioral disorders. Key professional organizations have spoken out, issuing policy statements urging their members not to recommend it. The American Academy of Ophthalmology, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology have issued joint statements, reaffirmed in 2014. Referring to dyslexia and ADHD, they state: “Scientific evidence does not support the efficacy of eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted filters or lenses for improving the long-term educational performance in these complex pediatric neurocognitive conditions. Diagnostic and treatment approaches that lack scientific evidence of efficacy, including eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted filters or lenses, are not endorsed and should not be recommended.” Even the professional association serving most of the optometrists who perform vision therapy, the American Optometric Association, has come out with the statement that: “vision therapy does not directly treat learning disabilities or dyslexia.” This is very clear-cut.

The preponderance of evidence and the consensus of experts point in the same direction. Vision therapy cannot cure dyslexia. I urge parents to prioritize evidence-based dyslexia remediation over vision therapy when deciding on treatments for their children.

When interviewing parents about their child’s strengths and weaknesses, I often hear statements like the following: “I don’t think my child has a problem with attention – he can focus really intensely on his cartoon-drawing (or video-gaming or Lego-building or reading) for hours at a time! In fact I can barely get him to stop. But his teachers complain he’s inattentive and distracted in the classroom. Maybe he’s just not stimulated by the material being taught?” Does this sound like your child – or one you know?

Some of the questions I need to help answer are: Is the child gifted? Does the child have ADHD? Is the child gifted and does he or she also have ADHD (i.e. is twice-exceptional)? Which of these factors are impacting the child’s ability to thrive in and outside of school? And what can be done to help.

My friends Xavier Castellanos, MD and Felice Kauffman, PhD wrote a monograph for the National Research Center for the Gifted and Talented on this very topic. It is reproduced here in short form on SENG’s website. They note that “Some people erroneously assume that a child who demonstrates sustained attention, such as a gifted child engaged in a high-interest activity, cannot have ADHD. It is understandable that an observer might discount the possibility of ADHD because from all appearances the child is so absorbed in a task that other stimuli fade into oblivion.”

While in fact: “This state of rapt attention can be described as “hyperfocus,” a condition that individuals with ADHD frequently experience.” Hyperfocus is the tendency for children and adults with ADHD to focus very intensely on things that interest them. At times, the focus is so strong that they become oblivious to the world around them. For more on hyperfocus see an article from Additude magazine here. Felice and Xavier point out that: “Activities that are continuously reinforcing and “automatic,” such as video or computer games or reading for pleasure, do not distinguish children who have ADHD from children who do not have ADHD, whereas effortful tasks do.” So it’s not whether the child can focus – it’s whether they can focus on effortful tasks.

They continue: “Evidence suggests that the gifted child with ADHD is particularly predisposed to exhibit this state of “hyperfocus.” While this can be a positive aspect of task commitment, it becomes a problem when the child is asked to shift from one task to another.”

Does this scenario sound familiar? You ask your child to stop doing what he is hyper focused on and come to dinner and he ignores you or objects strenuously?

Xavier and Felice write: “While cognitively this state (hyperfocus) can have positive aspects, behaviorally it can cause problems. It is important to understand that ADHD is not characterized by an inability to sustain attention, but rather by the inability to appropriately regulate the application of attention to tasks that are not intrinsically rewarding and/or that require effort. Such tasks are, sadly, characteristic of much of the work that is typically required in school, even in programs for gifted students.” So if school isn’t intrinsically rewarding, interesting, and/or requires effort, the gifted child with ADHD may tune-out and turn off.

To complicate matters, “By virtue of their giftedness, the range of tasks that are perceived as “effortless” is broader for gifted children, which is why their ADHD may be less apparent than in children who struggle more obviously and to lesser effect.” Something that would be effortful for a typical child (e.g. understanding a new math concept or comprehending sophisticated text) might not be effortful for the gifted child to whom such things come easily. So when a gifted child does have ADHD, their teachers may under-report symptoms because they appear to breeze through so much of the material. I see this most often when the child happens to be likable and internalizes rather than externalizes their frustrations.

It can take an assessment by a psychologist experienced in working with gifted and twice exceptional learners to tease out the subtleties.

It’s important to find out what’s going on because the student may be under-performing, or may be losing confidence and self-esteem. Their over-reliance on strengths to get by may “inadvertently obscure the disability.” They may get B+’s by answering questions based on superior reasoning skills, not necessarily having learned the actual material being tested. They may be frustrated and grow to distrust their abilities because they realize (consciously, or subconsciously) that they have to struggle to maintain them. They may feel they aren’t very smart after all. There may be negative impacts outside of academics: socially, emotionally, with friendships, and within the family dynamics.

When the student is accurately diagnosed, he or she can be given the opportunity to learn appropriate compensatory and coping skills. It’s especially helpful to address these issues at an early enough age before the student has turned off school, become a behavioral problem, become the class clown, or internalized frustrations in the form of anxiety or depression. While an adult can (if lucky) be happy and successful intensely pursuing their interests, few achieve success and satisfaction if they are unable to push through the less rewarding phases of an activity and keep working when something becomes effortful. These are skills and mind-sets we need to teach our twice exceptional children who are gifted and have ADHD.

If I can help you ascertain whether your child is gifted, has ADHD, or both, reach out to me at dm@drdevon.com. I do not charge for an initial 60 minute conversation.

I was asked to write an article for the December, 2017 issue of the 2e Twice Exceptional Newsletter, a bi-monthly subscription ($35/year) online newsletter for “those who raise, educate, and counsel high-ability (gifted) children who also have learning challenges.” It’s a wonderful publication and one I recommend for everyone who lives and breathes 2e. As the focus of the December issue was on relationships, they asked me to write about the importance of the student/teacher relationship, and what might be done to try to facilitate the development of positive ones. My article, in full, can be found here: 2E Newsletter Student Teacher Relationship Article.

But let me summarize a few key points as we head into a new semester.

Positive student-teacher relationships are important to virtually all students. But they are especially important for students who are “at risk.” And twice exceptional learners are at risk for underachievement, boredom, bullying, anxiety, depression, social disconnectedness, being misunderstood, and are prone to daily frustration. A good school year can be “made” by a relationship with a teacher who appears to like and bond with the student. A bad year can be “made” by a teacher who doesn’t. Strong student-teacher relationships can increase student motivation, grades, social outcomes, and emotional well-being at every stage in the student’s development, from early elementary school through college and graduate school. Clearly, they’re important.

Here are some things parents and students can each do to try to facilitate them.

Steps Parents can Take:

• Teach your child to be his or her own advocate. For obvious reasons (power differential, age difference) parents often need to take on the role of advocate for their child in school. However to the extent that the student can advocate for his or herself, it can be particularly effective. Teachers tend to be more open to requests and concerns expressed by students (and can be somewhat wary or skeptical of what they perceive as “helicopter” parenting).

• Teach your child social skills helpful in developing sound relationships with all people, including teachers (e.g., listening, turn-taking, conversational give-and-take, respect, complimenting others).

• Ask for a meeting to provide a “heads up” about your child. Explain their strengths and weaknesses, susceptibilities and personality. Ask for help addressing both exceptionalities – your child’s strengths and areas of weakness.

• Check in on a regular (but not excessive) basis to see how things are going and ask what you can do on your end to  help. Perhaps you can reinforce desired behaviors at home (e.g., waiting before blurting out an answer).

• Be a squeaky wheel – but a polite one. The squeaky wheel often does “get the grease.” Don’t hesitate to be direct about asking the teacher to meet your child’s needs. Stay on top of what’s going on in the classroom. But try to be polite and collaborative. A teacher may make more of an effort for a family they like.

• If things go wrong – your child comes home in tears or the teacher sends home behavioral warnings on a daily basis – it’s time to take action. Ask for a meeting with the teacher first. Go with an open mind. Listen, take notes. Patiently explain what you think may be happening from your child’s perspective. Try not to be too defensive. Suggest strategies that may be effective. If things don’t improve, then enlist the help of the principal, school psychologist, or an outside consultant.

Steps Students can Take:

• The more mature student can work deliberately on personal and advocacy skills conducive to developing good student-teacher relations, but even young children can learn helpful strategies.

• Make efforts to establish a personal relationship with your teacher. Ask if you can meet one-on-one so you can get to know each another. Talk about your needs. Stay after class to chat for a few minutes. Go to office hours. Share your interests and successes outside of school with your teacher. The better your teacher knows you and understands the person you are and the person you want to be, the more likely and better able he or she will be to help you toward your goals.

• Show appreciation by thanking your teacher for a lesson you enjoyed, for their feedback on a paper you wrote, or for the way they made a topic come alive for you. Positive feedback makes people feel warmly toward the person giving it.

• Show respect. Be polite. Try to listen and not talk to peers when the teacher is talking. Say “please” and “thank you.” If you feel that instruction is pointless or boring, explain this privately to the teacher rather than as an aside to your classmates.

• Ask for and accept help. Let your teacher know when you don’t understand something. Or when you already know the material and need something different or more advanced.

• Try to be patient, but also (politely) persistent in asking for the additional help, clarification or any accommodation you may need.

A good relationship with even one caring teacher can literally change a student’s life. We shouldn’t rely on chance and hope that such a relationship will develop spontaneously, but rather can try to set the stage and take proactive steps to try to help it happen.

I thought it would be helpful to post a list of the books and other resources I most frequently refer my clients to.

Books:

8 Keys to Parenting Children with ADHD by Cindy Goldrich (2015). Excellent “instruction manual” for how to parent children with ADHD including behavior management strategies. Author available for consultations.

Bright Kids Who Can’t Keep Up by Ellen Braaten and Brian Willoughby (2014). How slow processing speed impacts students and what can (and can’t) be done to help.

Executive Skills in Children and Adolescents by Peg Dawson and Richard Guare (2004). This is a manual – a “how-to” guide with specific interventions to be implemented at home and/or school for executive function weaknesses. I used this guide to help my son get through high school.

Misdiagnosis and Dual Diagnoses of Gifted Children and Adults: ADHD, bipolar, OCD, Asperger’s, depression, and other disorders, by James T. Webb, et al. (2005). In my view a bit extreme in suggesting that many behaviors characteristic of disability are actually just signs of giftedness, though I agree that does sometimes occur. I find that more often giftedness and disability coexist and that giftedness alone is not always (or even often) associated with dysfunction.

Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz (2003). Primarily about how to properly remediate reading problems but also specifically addresses challenges faced by bright dyslexics (Shaywitz is at Yale so discusses and works with students there).

The ADHD Explosion by Stephen P. Hinshaw and Richard Scheffle (2014). Chapters on the causes of ADHD (where biology meets culture) and diagnosing and treating ADHD are well worth the cost of the book. Much of the rest delves into social and educational policy issues. Anything by Stephen Hinshaw (one of my mentors at Berkeley) is recommended.

The Dyslexia Empowerment Plan by Ben Foss (2013). Focuses on strengths associated with dyslexia, explains assistive technology, and argues in favor of “reading” by listening rather than scanning text with one’s eyes. My son has taught himself to listen at 3x normal speed and says it is a “game changer” for him.

The Dyslexic Advantage by Brock and Fernette Eide (2011). Focuses on identifying the 4 main strengths associated with dyslexia. Powerful reading for adult dyslexics as well as parents. I give a copy to any parent of a dyslexic child who thinks they, too, might  be dyslexic. The book launched a foundation and website listed below.

The Mislabeled Child: How understanding your child’s unique learning style can open the door to success by Brock and Fernette Eide (2006). Covers misdiagnosis  and has chapters on different issues including communication challenges, ADHD, dysgraphia, dyslexia, and giftedness.

Websites, Facebook, and Other Resources:

2e Twice-Exceptional Newsletter. 2e Newsletter. An online bimonthly publication dedicated to understanding twice exceptional children. Modest fee for  online subscription. I think it’s well worth it.

Davidson Institute. Davidson Young Scholars. Non-profit providing free counseling to families of exceptionally gifted students accepted as Davidson Young Scholars. Many of my clients find the counseling to be very helpful.

Devon MacEachron, PhD. www.drdevon.com. That’s me! 2e assessment and educational advising. Facebook:  https://www.facebook.com/2Egifted/. Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/2egifted.

Dyslexic Advantage. Dyslexic Advantage Foundation. Focused on uncovering and celebrating the strengths associated with dyslexia. Testimonials, famous people, advice, assistive technology, etc. Premium membership gives access to a wonderful magazine and other resources.

Gifted Homeschoolers Forum. GHF. Primarily for families who are homeschooling, but much of the material and resources are of interest to all.  Publish articles, books, active online community, blog, ask the expert “column,” and have a section of their website devoted to twice-exceptionality.

Hoagies Gifted Website. Hoagies . Huge resource on giftedness and 2e with a plethora of articles, chat groups, blogs, etc.  Hoagies Gifted Discussion Group is a related Facebook group with 4,835 members you must apply to participate in.

Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth. CTY. Students testing as highly gifted in math or verbal qualify for their summer camps, online courses, family vacations, and day programs. The programs are not inexpensive, but they are phenomenal and can change a child’s life.

National Association for Gifted Children. NAGC. National advocacy group, posts articles, position papers, annual conference, offers Parenting for High Potential magazine, program and camp lists.

Parents of Twice Exceptional Children (2E): Closed Facebook group with 7,762 members you must apply to join. Active discussion with responses from parents in similar situations.

Raising Poppies: Closed Facebook group with 13,279 members you must apply to join focused on issues raising gifted children.

Twice Exceptional Children’s Advocacy (TECA): www.teca2e.org. Modest membership fee to access moderated online parent support groups, message board, and other specifically 2e resources.

TilT Parenting: www.tiltparenting.com. Features a weekly podcast focused on parenting 2e learners, referred to positively as “differently wired” kids, in the TilT manifesto.

Intelligence is multifaceted. When people tell me they want to know their IQ, I feel like asking: “In what area?” There are many different cognitive abilities and they have different impacts on what one is trying to accomplish. That’s why I approach the assessment of a person’s abilities from the perspective of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model which is, in effect, an inventory of “the intelligences.” It’s the most comprehensive and empirically supported theory of the structure of cognitive abilities to date, reflecting 70 years of research. About 80 different abilities are defined, with 20-25 of these playing important roles in school learning.

What I’d like to talk about today is the future and the role fluid intelligence might have in it. In the CHC model there are basically two main groupings of abilities that represent higher-order reasoning: crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence. They can be traced to two separate brain systems. Crystallized intelligence is a function of brain regions that involve the storage and usage of long-term memories, such as the hippocampus. Fluid intelligence involves the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and other systems related to attention and short-term memory.

Crystallized Intelligence is the ability to use learned knowledge and experience. It’s not the same thing as memory, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory (learning that has become “crystallized”). Crystallized intelligence encompasses vocabulary, depth and breadth of general knowledge, the ability to listen to and understand oral communications, knowledge of grammar, and the like. It is the product of educational and cultural experience. When you meet someone who has a large vocabulary, knows a lot of facts, is a Crossword puzzle or Scrabble master, and is a voracious reader, you can be pretty sure they have strong crystallized intelligence. People who have strong crystallized intelligence tend to sound really smart and they tend to do well in school.

In contrast, Fluid Intelligence is the capacity to reason and solve novel problems, independent of any knowledge from the past. It involves drawing inferences, concept formation, classification, generating and testing hypothesis, identifying relations, comprehending implications, problem solving, extrapolating, and transforming information. Fluid reasoning encompasses inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, and quantitative reasoning. Sherlock-Holmes kind of thinking. When you meet someone who has strong fluid reasoning you may not have any idea how smart they are until you throw a problem at them that needs solving. People who have strong fluid intelligence don’t necessarily excel in school, especially in the lower grade levels. If they make it to the PhD-level they may have trouble memorizing all the information they need to pass their oral exams. But boy can they defend their dissertation!

Some of the children I work with are strong in both areas. Others are strong in one or the other, but not both. The ones with strong crystallized intelligence tend to do well in school, as so much of school (the way it is structured today) is about learning facts and procedures. The ones with strong fluid intelligence may be so busy questioning the assumptions that they don’t learn the rules and procedures their classmates do. They may resist authority and question the value of what’s taught in school.

The Future: Our world is changing very rapidly. I know people have often said that about the times they live in, but it’s more true now than ever before. The pace of innovation and disruption is accelerating. As a society we are facing all kinds of novel problems to which we have no learned solutions, from political changes to global warming to the potential dangers of artificial intelligence. By 2020, the Fourth Industrial Revolution will have brought us advanced robotics and autonomous transport, artificial intelligence and machine learning, advanced materials, biotechnology and genomics. I wonder: What kind of brains will our children need to work in that kind of environment?

Now I’m going to enter into an area of conjecture and hypothesis, as I can find very little research literature on the topic. I guess I’m tapping into my own fluid intelligence.

I think the minds that will be best-suited to solving the world’s problems in the future are those with strengths in fluid intelligence. I believe that individuals who rely on crystallized intelligence may look to the past and rely too much on book learning and facts and procedures. In contrast, individuals who rely on fluid intelligence will be able to think on their feet around something totally unfamiliar, and be comfortable with the kind of complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity we’re facing. They will be flexible and fluid thinkers who like challenging the assumptions and thinking outside the box. Because many aspects of crystallized intelligence (e.g. stores of knowledge) can be easily accessed with a quick swipe on our phone, they may not be hampered by having weaker crystallized intelligence.

I feel a shift in the kind of intelligence we need for the future necessitates changes in the way we teach children. We’re teaching 19th century skills in our 21st century schools. To teach 21st and 22nd century skills will require a move away from the teaching of standard procedures and rote memorization toward creative problem-solving and how to tap into inductive and deductive reasoning processes. Intelligence is not fixed – it’s malleable. That’s what having a “growth mentality” is all about. So I’d like to see schools, parents, employers, and others focus more on the benefits of enhancing human fluid intelligence. After all, machines can probably do crystallized intelligence a lot better than we can anyway.

The frequency of misdiagnosis, especially of gifted and twice exceptional students, is one of the reasons I decided to go into the field of assessment as a specialist in these populations. Too many families go to the trouble and expense of having an assessment conducted only to be given incorrect or incomplete information about their child. I have been through this myself as a parent. And I have seen it time and time again among the families I work with. Misdiagnosis can create lasting damage, derail children’s educations, and result in worried days and sleepless nights for children and parents.

Why does this happen? Here are the top ten reasons  gifted and twice exceptional children are misdiagnosed:

1. Hidden abilities and weaknesses: Most gifted and twice-exceptional learners have complex profiles with unique patterns of strengths and weakness. Their strengths often camouflage the expression of their weaknesses (resulting in failure to identify learning difficulties or disabilities) and their weaknesses often camouflage the expression of their strengths (resulting in failure to identify strengths and giftedness). What on the surface may appear to be an average student is often a student with exceptional abilities and exceptional weaknesses “averaging” one another out.

2. “Symptom” confusion: The markers of conditions may appear to overlap. Gifted learners and learners with ADHD both have low tolerance for boredom. Gifted learners and learners with Asperger’s both have a tendency to focus intensely in areas of personal interest. Students with dyslexia may appear to have ADHD if they act distracted or disruptive when its time to read aloud or write.

3. Interaction of the organism (the child) with its environment: Remember gene-environment interaction from high school biology? The influence of the environment on development cannot be overstated. A child who appears to have ADHD in a school where he or she is having to sit through boring classes in which they already know most of the material may not appear to have ADHD at all when placed in a challenging gifted program. And sometimes it is the interaction with a specific teacher that causes the problem. Have you heard the expression “I don’t have a learning disability – my teacher has a teaching disability?”

4. Lack of training in giftedness and twice exceptionality: The psychologist conducting the assessment may not have received much training, if any, in these areas. You may be surprised to learn how little time is spent in most psychology training programs on the assessment of intelligence and learning. Most programs include no training in giftedness or twice exceptionality whatsoever. Furthermore, because many psychologists who conduct assessments work with a broad variety of children and do psychotherapy or other kinds of work in addition to assessment, their knowledge of giftedness and twice exceptionality may not grow much with experience. Some may see only one or two gifted or twice-exceptional students a year. Teachers tend to be equally unfamiliar with the characteristics of these children.

5. “Gifted” is seen as a four letter word: Some kind-hearted people think that it is elitist or unfair to describe or think of a child as gifted because it implies that they are “better than” or “superior” to others. This may be driven by a desire to be inclusive, treat everyone equally, and make people feel good. Strangely, not every child is expected to be equally gifted at sports where it is “allowed” to describe a child as athletically gifted. But it isn’t very “politically correct” to focus attention on intellectual giftedness and really hasn’t been since the 1950’s.

6. Misinterpretation of diagnostic criteria: The criteria psychologists use to make diagnoses are generally taken from the APA’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). One area of misunderstanding is that psychologists and school staff may be under the impression that a student has to be performing below the average level (e.g. below the 25th percentile) for their age or grade to be diagnosed with a learning disability. This is actually not true. Under “Diagnostic Features” the DSM-5 states: “academic skills are distributed along a continuum, so there is no natural cut point that can be used to differentiate individuals with and without specific learning disorder,” and “specific learning disorder may also occur in individuals identified as intellectually gifted. These individuals may be able to sustain apparently adequate academic functioning by using compensatory strategies…” Thus the code acknowledges that a gifted student may perform at the average, or “apparently adequate” level, yet still have a learning disability. But many school staff and even psychologists haven’t read the fine print.

7. Incomplete, cursory assessment: To do a top-notch assessment requires gathering a lot of background data and test data while applying critical thinking skills, testing hypotheses, and being willing to keep looking until the answers are revealed. While some diagnoses are clear-cut and relatively easy to make, most gifted and twice exceptional learners are harder to figure out. Not every psychologist is eager to dedicate that much energy and time. Time is money. Sometimes parents are the ones hoping for a quick fix to what may actually be a rather complicated problem.

8. Emotions get in the way: Parents may want their child to be diagnosed with a learning disability because it seems more hopeful than being told their child has a general intellectual disability. Or because it explains why they are under-performing despite high ability when the real problem is social, emotional, or family problems. Conversely, they may not want their child to be diagnosed with a disability because they feel it would be stigmatizing. Sometimes the emotions or preconceptions of the psychologist influence them to downplay findings to protect parents and child from disappointment. I’ve seen reports that pussyfoot so timidly around a diagnosis that parents are left mistakenly thinking there was nothing they really need be concerned about. This seems to be particularly common with autism/Asperger’s diagnoses. And ADHD. And emotional and behavioral problems.

9. Not observing and listening to the student: It never ceases to amaze me how much even very young children know about themselves. Of course they may not come right out and say it, but if they are observed carefully and asked the right questions in a welcoming and nurturing environment, amazing insights come out. Perceptive, sensitive gifted learners have finely tuned antennae making them profoundly aware of exactly where they are not doing as well as their peers or as they’d like. All one has to do is observe and ask.

10. Not observing and listening to the parent: Even though few parents have been professionally trained in picking up these kinds of clues, I find that they often are the first to notice something is up – and the most persistent to find solutions. If they raised the issue with their pediatrician they may have been told it was probably developmental and not to worry. If they raised the issue with their child’s teacher they may have been told their child was at grade level and not to worry. But parents are really good at worrying. When they “know” or “feel” something is up, they should trust their instincts. They’re often right.

If I can help you understand your gifted or twice-exceptional student better, schedule a time to talk with me by e-mailing dm@drdevon.com.

I was asked to write an article on this topic for TECA (Twice Exceptional Children’s Advocacy), an online community providing service and program directories and information about advocacy. I decided to enlist the help of Benjamin Meyer, a therapist specializing in young adults with NVLD and Asperger’s in the workforce. Here’s what we wrote:

By Benjamin Meyer, LCSW and Dr. Devon MacEachron, PhD

You did it! Your child has finally received an acceptance letter to a college or university and is beginning his or her first steps toward adult life. All your hard work navigating the treacherous path of diagnosis, remediation, social skills training, OT, PT, gifted programming, IEP’s and 504’s has paid off. You deserve a lot of credit for all that you have done to guide your child through the process, and you certainly deserve to celebrate!

While high school has come to an end, it is important to keep in mind that even after college, your child may face challenges related to their disabilities. These can include identifying and finding a career they enjoy, adapting to the world of employment, making friends with peers, and adult dating. Many young adults with learning differences are unemployed or underemployed due to the more nuanced social and executive functioning demands of the workplace, The National Center for Learning Disabilities reports that only 46 percent of work-age adults with an LD are employed (Cortiella, 2014) . “Failure to launch” has become a national epidemic, with many young people returning home to live with their parents due to challenges with the professional and social demands of adulthood. Your high school grad will be at an advantage if they take a few practical steps while in college to prepare for the “real world”.

Young adults in our practices often identify specific challenges at work related to their learning profiles. The dyslexic who chose engineering or architecture due to his gifted visual-spatial skills may find that slow speed and miscalculations made in math problems hinders his ability to complete tasks efficiently. The ingenious marketing professional with ADHD may experience difficulty organizing her ideas into action plans. The gifted writer with Asperger’s Syndrome or NVLD may struggle to hold regular employment due to difficulties reading their peers’ body language. Young adults who plan in advance for a career or job that will be a good fit for their unique profiles are most likely to be successful transitioning to the world of work.

Finding the Sweet Spot

When deciding on a career, young adults can search for the “sweet spot” where their strengths, interests, and values coincide (see diagram). The blue circle represents strengths. These should include intellectual talents as well as people skills, executive function, willingness to work hard, artistic, musical, and any other abilities. The green circle encompasses interests: sports, outdoor activities, academic subjects – any and all interests the individual may have. Lastly, it is important to identify and “own” the personal values that can impact career satisfaction. These include: how important a flexible work schedule is, how much social interaction is desired at work, the hours one is willing to work, desire for autonomy and independence versus taking direction from a boss, whether one enjoys working on a team, being outdoors versus in an office building, how important a high salary is, how important it is have a high prestige position, whether one wants to be considered an expert or authority, how important it is to feel one is helping others or making the world a better place. Values go in the yellow circle. By identifying the key factors that influence career success and happiness, young adults can begin to see which careers might fall within their “sweet spot.”

Acknowledging and Factoring in Areas of Challenge

While students are searching for their “sweet spot,” they will also benefit from being honest with themselves about their challenges. There are certain skills that are important in practically any job. Relating to colleagues, keeping your emotions in check, taking initiative, and having an organizational system are a few of them. There are also specific skills required in different fields, e.g. math skills for an actuary or writing skills for a journalist. If the student feels they have a weakness in an area important to a career they feel they would like to pursue, they can work on developing those skills while still in college. For example, they might learn to create an organizational system with a coach or work with a therapist on professional social skills. The student will also benefit from consulting with professionals who are in the field they are considering, especially those who have a similar profile of strengths and weaknesses. This will help them assess how suited their specific strengths and weaknesses are with the demands of the job and will aid in identifying some strategies for compensating for their weaknesses. Internships and mentorships are ideal opportunities to practice compensation strategies while building on strengths, experience and expertise.

Case Studies

Jacob is a verbally gifted 2e student with nonverbal learning disability interested in becoming a social worker. He realizes that he may find meeting documentation requirements challenging due to executive functioning deficits, while also facing obstacles reading nuances in body language from colleagues and employers. On the other hand, his strengths in writing and verbal skills will help him to produce well-written progress notes and describe cases in detail. As is the case for any 2e student, expressing specific strengths to potential employers during and after the interview process is a critical skill for landing a good job. Twice-exceptional students have exceptional strengths and these can be a major attraction to employers. But prospective employers may not know what those are until the applicant articulates them in a clear and concise way, convincing the employer of their value. Jacob needs to sell his verbal and writing skills. At the same time, he should anticipate concerns about weaknesses and consider addressing them up front. If a prospective employer knows that Jacob has NVLD and what NVLD means, they might be concerned about Jacob’s organizational abilities. Jacob would be wise to highlight in the interview process that he worked on developing a unique filing system at his last job, and explain how this skill will help him be an effective social worker.

Neil is a brilliant mathematician and visual-spatial thinker with Asperger’s and ADHD. He struggled with attention and making friends in college, however he successfully identified a strong interest and talent in architecture. Neil knows that he will no longer have access to a note taker, extra-time on tests, and academic coaches to help him stay on task in the work world. Also, an understanding of business social skills will be critical for him to engage effectively with clients in this field. During his last two years of college, Neil decided to work with a therapist building business-savvy social skills. During the summer when he is interning at an architecture firm he intends to consult with a business organizational coach and mentor who understands some of the demands he is likely to face in an architecture career. When Neil interviews for full-time jobs after college he may request “reasonable accommodations” that will not create an excessive burden for the employer. These could include extra filing space, access to a computerized organizational system, and a co-worker to accompany Neil to organizational meetings and provide professional feedback, etc.

Caroline is a 2e student who is dyslexic and has ADHD. She wants to be a journalist. She hit some road-bumps along the way in college from her ADHD and as a result it took her 6 years to graduate. She’s decided she needs to address this up-front in her interviews by explaining that she has ADHD, what happened, and what she learned from it (e.g. how to be organized, how much she cares about learning). When she mentions her ADHD she intends to emphasize that she thinks it is part of the reason she is so creative as a journalist and point to examples of creative stories she has published. But she doesn’t think her dyslexia will negatively impact her future work because she knows to get her pieces edited for spelling and grammatical errors. So she’s not planning on mentioning that exceptionality.

Does Your 2e Learner Have to “Tell All?”

It depends. In an ideal, open-minded, accepting-of-neurodiversity world one would be up-front about such things. No one wants to end up in a position that’s a bad fit. On the other hand, although they legally cannot discriminate, prospective employers may be concerned about hiring someone who brings challenges along with them. Many people don’t know about twice-exceptionality and may not get that one can be gifted and have a disability. We recommend the student decide in advance how much information would be in their best interests to divulge. The decision of what to share may be influenced by how overt the student’s weaknesses are. If you can’t hide it, own it. The decision may be influenced by the culture in the specific career field or company. Technology firms and academia tend to be more open-minded to differently-wired people. Traditional businesses like manufacturing and law may be less so. Of course if the student does decide to share, thought should be given to how to frame such information in the most informative light.

When a 2e student is proactive in preparing for future employment during the college years, their chances of success are greatly improved. These steps can include: researching and selecting a career that fits well with their unique profile of strengths, challenges, and values; working to address organizational and “soft skills” deficits while still in college; and finally deciding what and how much to self-disclose. Although 2e young adults may face challenges adapting to the workforce, they can be proactive about creating strategies for overcoming these boundaries, especially if they start doing so during the college years.

Benjamin Meyer, LCSW is a bilingual psychotherapist who provides psychotherapy and coaching services to young adults with High-Functioning Autism and Nonverbal Learning Disorder post-college in New York City. Dr. Devon MacEachron, PhD is a psychologist with expertise in twice-exceptional learners who provides psychological assessment and educational planning services to children, young adults, and their families in New York City.

Works Cited

Cortiella, C. &. (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities: Facts Trends and Emerging Issues . New York, NY : The National Center for Learning Disabilities.

Are you familiar with the 5 stages of grief?

They describe the stages people go through when they learn they have a serious illness, or have lost a loved one, or have gotten divorced or broken up with a significant other. I find these stages helpful in understanding how parents may feel after their child receives a diagnosis of learning disability, ADHD, Asperger’s, and even giftedness.

For many parents there is a natural “mourning period” – a period of time in which they eventually let go of the image they may have harbored of a “perfect” child with idealized characteristics, and accept the child they have instead been given – for all his or her unique and wonderful differentness. It’s natural for parents to have expectations and dreams about the child they will have one day. And it’s natural to be shaken up when one’s expectations and dreams are threatened. That’s where grief can come in. Parents may go through “stages of grief” as they “mourn” the loss of the child they thought they’d have before accepting the child they do have.

Stage 1 is Denial. The first reaction for some is denial. This stage can serve the function of providing emotional protection from being overwhelmed with the idea all at once. Parents may believe the diagnosis is incorrect or mistaken, and try to cling to a false, preferable reality of a “perfect,” or “normal” child. Second opinions may be sought. Symptoms may be dismissed as “developmental” or attributed to generalities like “boys will be boys.” The assessment report might be filed in the wastebasket. Of course it is possible that the diagnosis is inaccurate, and parents should challenge it if it doesn’t seem right. But at some point – if the shoe fits – it is in the child’s best interest for parents to stop denying it. It is very important that the professional charged with first explaining the child’s profile to parents do so with empathy, recognizing and pointing out the child’s many strengths, and providing recommendations that address strengths as well as areas of weakness. No child should be defined entirely by weaknesses, deficits, or disabilities.

Stage 2 is Guilt. As the shock wears off, it may be replaced with pain and guilt. Parents may feel it is their “fault.” Mothers may wonder if it was that one glass of wine they had when they were pregnant. Should they have embraced a more structured parenting style and told their toddler “no” more often? Should they have used organic baby food? Should they have asked their future spouse for a genetic screening test before they accepted a proposal of marriage? I find the guilt stage to be particularly prevalent among mothers who work outside of the home.

Stage 3 is Anger. Some parents may become angry and frustrated, especially at proximate individuals like school staff, teachers, and spouses. They struggle with “Why my child? It’s not fair!”, “How could this happen?”, and “Who brought those genes into the family anyway?” They may go to war with their child’s school, focusing their anger on trying to get the services he or she needs. They may hire an advocate to accompany them into battle. Often this is a good thing and results in the child’s needs being met. But sometimes parents get stuck in this stage and spend years locked in battle. This may not be the most beneficial thing for the child, who is waiting in the sidelines for services, and can create a “battle zone” mentality which is not conducive to a happy home life. Marriages may suffer, especially if one spouse is in the anger stage while the other is still in denial or guilt.

Stage 4 is Depression. A period of sadness, loneliness, and hopelessness may come next. Parents may feel a sense of despair that their child might not be able to lead a normal life, go to college, find a partner, and have a successful career. Sleepless nights may ensue. Parents may isolate themselves from relationships with others (e.g. friends with children who appear to be thriving in school) who they feel can’t understand what they’re going through. This stage can be particularly difficult for parents who feel they are in it alone – single parents and those whose spouses do not “buy in” to the diagnosis and plan of action.

Stage 5 is Acceptance. Acceptance is the final or “goal” stage. Acceptance means that parents bury the expectation of the perfect, normal, idealized child (whatever that means) and accept the wonderful child that they have – in all his or her uniqueness. Acceptance means realizing: “It’s going to be okay;” and maybe even: “It’s going to be great!” Equanimity comes with acceptance. Equanimity involves the ability to be calm and maintain composure even in a difficult situation.

As the parent of two twice exceptional children with learning disabilities and ADHD I’ve been through these stages myself. Disbelief and denial that there could be anything “off” given how bright my children seemed. Guilt that maybe this wouldn’t have happened if I’d parented with more structure or had them assessed when they were younger. Anger that their schools seemed unwilling to address their disabilities or their giftedness. Isolation, sleepless nights. Friends and relatives who didn’t “get it.” And finally…acceptance. And pride and joy that my children are unique and fascinating individuals with strengths they probably would never have had if they weren’t wired differently.

I’m still working on the equanimity bit. Calm and composed? Too much to expect!

Many parents wonder if their child will grow out of the problems that plague them as a child: their dyslexia, math disability, writing challenges, weak executive function, ADHD, or Asperger’s. I’m asked this question quite often by successful adults who are initially surprised their children are struggling, but when interviewed carefully about their own early years admit to having experienced similar challenges. But now they are a successful adult, so they must have grown out of it. Right?

Not necessarily. The short answer to whether most children grow out of these challenges is: probably not. At least not completely. But the demands in the world around them (their day-to-day environment) do change, and as they move through school and career they can be more selective about the kinds of things they choose to do, electing to do things they’re good at and avoiding things they’re not. So their dyslexia or ADHD or Asperger’s might not negatively impact the quality of their life very much as an adult, and may even become an advantage. But they still have it.

Adults diagnosed with dyslexia as children, even if they benefit from years of reading and writing remediation, tend to remain poor spellers and slow readers. I see this every day in my dyslexic husband who reads one book to my ten, though we spend the same amount of time reading every day.

For ADHD, some of the research suggests that children with ADHD simply have delayed brain maturation (by 3-5 years), but that they will eventually catch up with their peers. Unfortunately this may not happen until well past puberty and into college. I get dozens of calls every year from families of college freshmen with ADHD who are spinning out of control in the area of executive function. I often feel that students with ADHD would benefit from being “redshirted” to give their frontal lobe a chance to catch up with their peers’. Redshirting is a practice used most often in athletics of postponing entrance into kindergarten of age-eligible children in order to allow extra time for physical growth, making the children bigger and stronger thus more competitive athletically than their grade-peers. But it would be hard to “redshirt” our ADHD children for 3-5 years!

Anyway, rather than completely growing out of it, it seems that most children with ADHD grow up into adults with ADHD. The American Academy of Family Physicians reports that two-thirds of children with ADHD continue to grapple with symptoms (at some level) throughout adulthood. Their symptoms may present significant challenges, or they may not – depending on the circumstances. Some adults with ADHD only demonstrate impairing symptoms when they are anxious or depressed. Or when they’re hurrying. Or when they have to work on a long-term project. Or when they haven’t been getting enough exercise lately.

The environment and the individual’s physical state are both critical factors determining whether symptoms will be problematic or not. This is true for other medical conditions as well. If you have Type-II diabetes how you eat influences whether your symptoms manifest and whether your condition will appear to be dormant or you will have to use insulin for treatment. Adults with ADHD can try to choose careers (environments) that are well-suited to their needs. I can’t imagine either of my own children functioning very effectively if they were required to sit quietly at a desk all day doing routine work. Fortunately, they’ve gravitated to the fast-changing worlds of tech and media start-ups. In these environments they find it easy to stay attentive and focused. They can get up and move around. And they’ve learned that they’re more focused when they take care of their physical states by exercising, meditating, getting enough sleep, and eating right.

Children with Asperger’s still retain autistic brain differences as adults and gravitate to professions that fit their profiles. Hans Asperger wrote: “We can see in the autistic person, far more clearly than with any normal child, a predestination for a particular profession from earliest youth. A particular line of work often grows naturally out of their special abilities.” The adult with Asperger’s working as a physics professor or in Silicon Valley may be perceived as eccentric, but not necessarily as having a “disability.” The right environment can bring out the best aspects of a unique profile and downplay the worst.
Even during the school years, a child’s symptoms may manifest differently depending on the demands of the environment. A dyslexic child may experience significant challenges in elementary school when they have to read written text, hand-write responses, and are marked off for spelling errors. But when they’re in high school and can listen to text through voice software, type responses, and use spell-check, things can get a lot easier. A child with a math disability who struggles to recall math facts and has slow math calculation fluency may have a lot of trouble in elementary school when math is mostly about arithmetic. But when they reach high school and college when it’s more about problem-solving and fluid reasoning, they may excel.

So, children don’t usually grow out of it, but they may not be troubled by the different way their brain is wired when the demands of the environment change. In fact, having a differently wired brain may confer distinct advantages.

Books like: The Dyslexic Advantage: Unlocking the Hidden Potential of the Dyslexic Brain by Dr.’s Brock and Fernette Eide; The ADHD Advantage: What You Thought Was a Diagnosis May Be Your Greatest Strength, by Dale Archer, M.D.; and The Way I See It: A Personal Look at Autism & Asperger’s by Temple Grandin, M.D. point out the advantages that being wired differently can confer. This is not just “feel-good” pop-science – there is some serious research uncovering real strengths in thinking associated with each of these diagnoses.

If orange is the new black, maybe having a “disability” is the new superpower.